My friend, the IVC. #FOAMed, #FOAMer, #FOAMus, #FOAMcc

So I keep hearing and seeing people bash the IVC. Casually dismissing it with a shrug. “It’s not really good for volume responsiveness, you know…” All that deserves is an eyeball-rolling emoji. That is, unfortunately, the reaction of docs who are trying to devise a threshold or recipe-based approach to POCUS management (which will be […]

#POCUS IVC Pitfall Twitter Poll & Discussion. #FOAMed, #FOAMer, #FOAMcc

So I ran a couple of twitter polls sets the other day. Here is the first: (if you want the twitter videos see here)     and part 2: And to sum it up: So I just wanted to illustrate something I keep bringing up, essentially that the entire IVC literature based on the AP […]

The IVC: Short vs Long Axis…Be The Judge! #FOAMed, #FOAMus, #FOAMcc

So yesterday had a case that really brought out this issue. One of my ICU patients didn’t have a great urine output, so instead of playing a guessing game looking at urea, creatinine, ins & outs, etc, etc (hopefully no one is thinking CVP…), I did what any self-respecting bedside sonographer would and went for […]

The Effort-Variation Index – a conceptual tool for IVC ultrasound. #FOAMed, #FOAMcc, #FOAMus

I recently had a colleague ask me to put on a graph the way I like to assess the IVC, at least conceptually.  I posted about this a few weeks ago (, so I tried to come up with something useful for clinicians, correlating IVC variation with respiratory effort. A useful concept to visualize this […]

The IVC Assessment by bedside ultrasound: Let’s apply some common sense! #FOAMed, #FOAMcc

So I have a huge issue the IVC and its ultrasound assessment. For the most part, neither the yay-sayers or the nay-sayers are applying much sound physical principles, as far as I’m concerned. To assess a patient’s volume status, it may be practical to begin with the sub-xiphoid view of the IVC, since the decision to […]

Bedside Ultrasound: The Sluggish IVC – something to look for… #FOAMed, #FOAMcc

So take a look at this: I’m sure most experienced bedside sonographers come across this all the time.  For those who are starting out, and until now have just been looking at size and variation, take a second to look at the flow.  You can actually see the flow stop and start, which tells you […]

Another interesting question from @JCHCheung! #FOAMed, #FOAMcc

So here’s another interesting question as a follow up to the previous discussions: Most people would probably agree that florid congestive signs on POCUS means the RV is unable to pass any more extra volume to the left heart; whilst the absence of those signs mean that the patient may be able to cope with […]

Volume status, CHAISE study and other silly questions. #FOAMed, #FOAMcc, #FOAMer

So I just finished reading the CHAISE study, which compared Parm as a surrogate for Pmsf as a surrogate for “volume status.” It is a really cool study for anyone who loves physiology, which I definitely do, and there may be some interesting elements that can be clinically used. But let’s first set the record […]