H&R2018 Keynote Lecture: Re-Defining Sepsis by Lawrence Lynn. #FOAMed, #FOAMcc

Lawrence’s work on sepsis analysis is truly groundbreaking. To put this in perspective, one has to recognize that sepsis is an exceedingly heterogeneous disease that, once upon a time, and for good reasons, an arbitrary definition was formulated. This, however, does not reflect sepsis adequately, and needs to change with observational data, as this has tremendous implications in therapeutics research.

Lawrence’s efforts have resulted in data systems revealing a number of different patterns of sepsis, with clear differences in physiologic effects or responses. This may explain why so many failed therapies for sepsis have occurred. It is entirely plausible that some of these therapies may have effects in some of these phenotypes of sepsis but get lost in the statistical mix.

Love to answer any questions anyone may have, and Lawrence will certainly chime in on the discussion!

cheers

Philippe

 

 

 

CCUS Institute POCUS & Resuscitationist Mini-Fellowship: Evolution.

 

So over the last couple of years, the POCUS Mini-Fellowships have been slowly but steadily morphing into POCUS-Resus training.  With POCUS essentially critical in all aspects in resus, including venous congestion assessment, ventilation, diagnostics, it is a natural extension to blend the exchange into many of the other tools that we use, including discussions around fluids choices, pressor choices, monitoring using NIRS tissue oximetry, ETCO2, and overall resuscitation strategies.

Some structured workshops will include percutaneous pigtail insertion, vascular access phantom practice and both surgical and percutaneous surgical airway manikin practice, depending on participants’ choice.

We have recently expanded with the addition of Dr. Philippe St-Arnaud, ER and CC doc and EDE (Emergency Department Echography) Instructor extraordinaire, who will increase our availability – which had been fairly limited – apologies to those whom we could not accommodate due to scheduling reasons.

This is an excellent complement to an RLA (I’m part of that faculty) or ULA fellowship, to bring a real clinical experience into the mix.

Of course, if you are a canadian resident you can get a whole month of this for free by doing an ICU elective at Santa Cabrini Hospital (well, americans are also welcome but more hoops to jump thru!).

For more details and registration information see here.

And here is some of the most recent feedback from the fellows:

 

        This review is for the CCUS Institute Bedside Ultrasound (US) Mini-Fellowship. I was fortunate to do the mini-fellowship after the Hospitalist & Resuscitationist conference, and I was able to put into practice various techniques that we learned. Dr. Rola was a pleasure to work with and was well-versed with the latest US and free online access meducation (FOAM). The atmosphere was conducive to learning, and we picked up an ultrasound almost immediately and used it extensively through each day. We used various US machines and were able to get a good feel for all of them. My US experience before the mini-fellowship had been a two-day introductory course with healthy medical students as volunteers. At the mini-fellowship, being able to learn on actual critically ill patients was illuminating and helped cement what I had learned. We also went over relatively new bedside techniques such as point-of-care trans-cranial doppler (TCD) and optic nerve US (ONSD). Overall, the experience was well worth the 2800 mile trip, and I would enthusiastically recommend it to anyone that is interested in learning practical applications of US. – Dr. Pranay Parikh, Los Angeles, USA.

So join us for a few days of intense, real clinical learning.

cheers,

 

Philippe

Petition to retire the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines. A #FOAMed Movement.

Philippe

Friends,

Concern regarding the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines dates back to their inception.  Guideline development was sponsored by Eli Lilly and Edwards Life Sciences as part of a commercial marketing campaign (1).  Throughout its history, the SSC has a track record of conflicts of interest, making strong recommendations based on weak evidence, and being poorly responsive to new evidence (2-6).

The original backbone of the guidelines was a single-center trial by Rivers defining a protocol for early goal-directed therapy (7).  Even after key elements of the Rivers protocol were disproven, the SSC continued to recommend them.  For example, SSC continued to recommend the use of central venous pressure and mixed venous oxygen saturation after the emergence of evidence that they were nonbeneficial (including the PROCESS and ARISE trials).  These interventions eventually fell out of favor, despite the slow response of SSC that delayed knowledge translation.

SSC has been sponsored by Eli Lilly, manufacturer of Activated Protein C.  The guidelines continued recommending Activated Protein C until it was pulled from international markets in 2011.  For example, the 2008 Guidelines recommended this, despite ongoing controversy and the emergence of neutral trials at that time (8,9).  Notably, 11 of 24 guideline authors had financial conflicts of interest with Eli Lilly (10).

The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) refused to endorse the SSC because of a suboptimal rating system and industry sponsorship (1).  The IDSA has enormous experience in treating infection and creating guidelines.  Septic patients deserve a set of guidelines that meet the IDSA standards.

Guidelines should summarize evidence and provide recommendations to clinicians.  Unfortunately, the SSC doesn’t seem to trust clinicians to exercise judgement.  The guidelines infantilize clinicians by prescribing a rigid set of bundles which mandate specific interventions within fixed time frames (example above)(10).  These recommendations are mostly arbitrary and unsupported by evidence (11,12).  Nonetheless, they have been adopted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a core measure (SEP-1).  This pressures physicians to administer treatments despite their best medical judgment (e.g. fluid bolus for a patient with clinically obvious volume overload).

We have attempted to discuss these issues with the SSC in a variety of forums, ranging from personal communications to formal publications (13-15).  We have tried to illuminate deficiencies in the SSC bundles and the consequent SEP-1 core measures.  Our arguments have fallen on deaf ears.

We have waited patiently for years in hopes that the guidelines would improve, but they have not.  The 2018 SSC update is actually worse than prior guidelines, requiring the initiation of antibiotics and 30 cc/kg fluid bolus within merely sixty minutes of emergency department triage (16).  These recommendations are arbitrary and dangerous.  They will likely cause hasty management decisions, inappropriate fluid administration, and indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.  We have been down this path before with other guidelines that required antibiotics for pneumonia within four hours, a recommendation that harmed patients and was eventually withdrawn (17).

It is increasingly clear that the SSC guidelines are an impediment to providing the best possible care to our septic patients.  The rigid framework mandated by SSC doesn’t help experienced clinicians provide tailored therapy to their patients.  Furthermore, the hegemony of these guidelines prevents other societies from developing better guidelines.

We are therefore petitioning for the retirement of the SSC guidelines.  In its place, we would call for the development of separate sepsis guidelines by the United States, Europe, ANZICS, and likely other locales as well.  There has been a monopoly on sepsis guidelines for too long, leading to stagnation and dogmatism.  We would hope that these new guidelines are written by collaborations of the appropriate professional societies, based on the highest evidentiary standards.  The existence of several competing sepsis guidelines could promote a diversity of opinions, regional adaptation, and flexible thinking about different approaches to sepsis.

We are disseminating an international petition that will allow clinicians to express their displeasure and concern over these guidelines.  If you believe that our septic patients deserve more evidence-based guidelines, please stand with us.

Sincerely, 

Scott Aberegg MD MPH

Jennifer Beck-Esmay MD

Steven Carroll DO MEd

Joshua Farkas MD

Jon-Emile Kenny MD

Alex Koyfman MD

Michelle Lin MD

Brit Long MD

Manu Malbrain MD PhD

Paul Marik MD

Ken Milne MD

Justin Morgenstern MD

Segun Olusanya MD

Salim Rezaie MD

Philippe Rola MD

Manpreet Singh MD

Rory Speigel MD

Reuben Strayer MD

Anand Swaminathan MD

Adam Thomas MD

Scott Weingart MD

Lauren Westafer, MD

References
  1. Eichacker PQ, Natanson C, Danner RL. Surviving Sepsis – Practice guidelines, marketing campaigns, and Eli Lilly.  New England Journal of Medicine  2006; 16: 1640-1642.
  2. Pepper DJ, Jaswal D, Sun J, Welsch J, Natanson C, Eichacker PQ. Evidence underpinning the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Management Bundle (SEP-1): A systematic review.  Annals of Internal Medicine 2018; 168: 558-568.
  3. Finfer S. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign:  Robust evaluation and high-quality primary research is still needed.  Intensive Care Medicine  2010; 36:  187-189.
  4. Salluh JIF, Bozza PT, Bozza FA. Surviving sepsis campaign:  A critical reappraisal.  Shock 2008; 30: 70-72.
  5. Eichacker PQ, Natanson C, Danner RL. Separating practice guidelines from pharmaceutical marketing.  Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35:  2877-2878.
  6. Hicks P, Cooper DJ, Webb S, Myburgh J, Sppelt I, Peake S, Joyce C, Stephens D, Turner A, French C, Hart G, Jenkins I, Burrell A.The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008.  An assessment by the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society.  Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 2008; 36: 149-151.
  7. Rivers ME et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.  New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 1368-1377.
  8. Wenzel RP, Edmond MB. Septic shock – Evaluating another failed treatment.  New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 366: 2122-2124.
  9. Savel RH, Munro CL. Evidence-based backlash:  The tale of drotrecogin alfa.  American Journal of Critical Care  2012; 21: 81-83.
  10. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM et al. Surviving sepsis campaign:  International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock:    Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34:  17-60.
  11. Allison MG, Schenkel SM. SEP-1: A sepsis measure in need of resuscitation?  Annals of Emergency Medicine 2018; 71: 18-20.
  12. Barochia AV, Xizhong C, Eichacker PQ. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign’s revised sepsis bundles.  Current Infectious Disease Reports 2013; 15: 385-393.
  13. Marik PE, Malbrain MLNG. The SEP-1 quality mandate may be harmful: How to drown a patient with 30 ml per kg fluid! Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy 2017; 49(5) 323-328.
  14. Faust JS, Weingart SD. The past, present, and future of the centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services quality measure SEP-1:  The early management bundle for severe sepsis/septic shock.  Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 2017; 35: 219-231.
  15. Marik PE. Surviving sepsis:  going beyond the guidelines.  Annals of Intensive Care 2011; 1: 17.
  16. Levy MM, Evans LE, Rhodes A. The surviving sepsis campaign bundle:  2018 update. Intensive Care Medicine. Electronic publication ahead of print, PMID 29675566.
  17. Kanwar M, Brar N, Khatib R, Fakih MG. Misdiagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and inappropriate utilization of antibiotics: side effects of the 4-h antibiotic administration rule.  Chest 2007; 131: 1865-1869.

Renovascular #POCUS: Technique with Korbin Haycock. #FOAMed, #FOAMcc, #FOAMus

Korbin Haycock, ER doc extraordinaire.

 

So a few months ago I got to talking with Korbin about POCUS, fluids and resuscitation, only to find out this guy is doing all sorts of awesome stuff in his ED in sunny California.  Got to meet him at H&R2018 and he had even more tricks up his sleeve he was telling me about. He will definitely be back for H&R2019 on the faculty side of things.

In the meantime, let’s review renovascular ultrasound with him:

And here is our discussion that took place at TheRounds Backstage during #HR2018.

Interesting stuff. It isn’t always so easy to get a nice renal view in ICU patients, but with some perseverance you often can. I’ve been toying with it and tying it in with the hepatic and portal flow patterns, but I have to admit I had sort of dismissed renal resistive index based on what I could find in the literature, that is until I got to chat with Korbin, who made me see there are some interesting avenues, especially the example he states on seeing it improve with vasopressin use in shock patients, which correlates with some of the data out there suggesting decreased need for RRT and better outputs with vasopressin on board.

I have a feeling there is relevance to this in acute care, and that the next couple of years will reveal some usefulness. The glitch had always been in not knowing what the baseline RRI is, and that it can be abnormal in chronic RF. There are, however, many patients who were perfectly well previously and where the assumption that their baseline is normal is probably safe.

Love to hear comments from anyone using this!

 

cheers

 

Philippe

A POCUS case with Dr. Kaud #FOAMed, #FOAMcc, #FOAMus

Though better known as a Rheum Pro after his talk at H&R2018, internist Daniel Kaud is also a budding POCUSologist, and here he shares a recent case where, as the ICU consultant to the ER, his POCUS skills help early diagnosis and a re-assessment of therapy.

Here is the case:

…and here is the clip:

and further discussion:

 

I think this illustrates well the usefulness of POCUS, and even if in this particular case, volume overload was not immediately an issue, it may have been if ongoing fluid resuscitation had continued.

Kudos to Daniel for shifting his traditional IM-based assessment to a POCUS-IM one!

 

cheers!

 

Philippe

 

H&R2018 Presentations

 

Here are several of the H&R Powerpoint Presentations. Some of the lectures will be made available on Vimeo in the next weeks.

 

Palumbo on New Oncological Therapies:

Michael Palumbo April 18 2018 (1)

 

Ajjamada on Making Platelets Great Again:

Thrombocytopenia – Website Version

 

Fadlallah on CHF

presentation santa HF 2018

 

Farkas Presentations (the videos are or will be available on Josh’s blog with audio here)

FarkasMontreal

 

Harvey on Drug Intercations:

Interaction-Pearls_2018_modif31mars

 

more to come soon!

 

cheers

 

P